不要小看身體缺水對大腦記憶力的影響!

《微復原力》佳句摘要

「促進大腦運轉,喝水就…..當我們壓力很大,努力趕上最後期限,勞苦功高的水瓶常被推到桌子遠處,接著就被遺忘,然而此時正是我們最需要補水的時候。研究顯示,喝水立刻就能提升表現。英國研究人員證實,在接受具有挑戰性的動腦任務之前,受試者先喝一品脫(約500毫升)的白開水,需要的反應時間比沒補水的人少14%。同一組科學家也證實,水喝得比同學多的孩童,注意力集中的時間增加,記憶力也增強。科學顯示,如果一忙碌就忘記喝水,不論是忘幾小時或忘一整天,達成目標的能力會減弱。」

 

國立衛生研究院(National Institutes of Health, NIH)指出輕微到中等程度的脫水會傷害各種認知領域的表現,包括短期記憶、知覺辨認(perceptual discrimination)、計算能力,以及視覺追蹤的動作協調。換言之身體攝取充足的水分,記憶力變好,對數字更敏銳,眼睛看得更清楚,手眼協調能力更好是可以期待的結果

 

《微復原力》佳句摘要

血糖和水分一樣,隨時影響著我們的復原力…大腦是新陳代謝的「大戶」,明明只占全身重量2%,但每日耗掉我們攝取熱量的20~25%大腦的執行功能,如決策、身心耐力和邏輯推理,比自動發生的認知事件更耗血糖。由於腦中永遠只有少量血糖,不補充的話,5~10分鐘就會缺糖,執行功能很容易受影響。如果太常忽略進食,就可能頭昏腦脹、猶豫不決甚至憂鬱沮喪。」quote from《微復原力》 | 天下文化 | 2019/8/30出版

 

血糖下降時,自制能力也會下降。有聽過「hangry」這個詞嗎?距離進食時間愈久,就愈難控制情緒,我們會突然暴怒或掉眼淚。此外,血糖低的時候(不正常的低血糖濃度期間)會增加焦慮程度。從前有一句廣告台詞說:「肚子一餓,你就不是你」(You’re not you when you’re hungry)」

 

「如果連正常範圍內的血糖波動也能避免,對我們的好處相當多。自制力或許是最容易受血糖波動影響的大腦執行功能,也有證據顯示,良好的自我管理,關係著健康的人際互動、人緣、良好的心理健康、有效的應對技巧、優秀的學業表現,以及比較不容易陷入藥物與酒精濫用、犯罪行為或飲食失調。….血糖飆高(高血糖)不代表大腦會運轉得更順暢。長期維持高血糖會以各種方式損害全身細胞,包括大腦細胞。」

 

司馬儀:人的腦部組織75%是水分,依照中醫的說法,腎主水,過去便有醫生表示顧腎的辦法就是多喝水(當然也不能過量會引發水中毒)但醫生之所以會那麼說是因為水分攝取不足的國人非常多!過去其他研究證實身體疲勞的原因之一就是身體缺水!此外,想要抑制高漲的食慾也要多喝水!

 

“Water deprivation elicits the sensation of thirst when certain brain cells become dehydrated by as little as 1% or 2% by the osmotic loss of water. Those cells are located in the basal forebrain, just rostral to the third cerebral ventricle.” quote from Water Deprivation | ScienceDirect Topics

 

參考資料

Water deprivation induces neurovascular and cognitive dysfunction through vasopressin-induced oxidative stress

Brain serotonin metabolism during water deprivation and hydration in rats.

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《微復原力》註釋

  • [1] C. J. Edmonds, R. Crombie, and M. R. Gardner, “Subjective Thirst Moderates Changes in Speed of Responding Associated with Water Consumption,” Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7 (2013): 363.
  • [2] B. M. Popkin, K. E. D’Anci, and I. H. Rosenberg, “Water, Hydration, and Health,” Nutrition Reviews 68, no. 8 (2010): 439–458.
  • [3] C. Cian et al., “Effects of Fluid Ingestion on Cognitive Function after Heat Stress or Exercise-Induced Dehydration,” International Journal of Psychophysiology 42 (2001): 243– 251; C. Cian et al., “Influence of Variations of Body Hydration on Cognitive Performance,” Journal of Psychophysiology 14 (2000): 29–36; P. M. Gopinathan, G. Pichan, and V. M. Sharma, “Role of Dehydration in Heat Stress-Induced Variations in Mental Performance,” Archives of Environmental Health 43 (1988): 15–17; K. E. D’Anci et al., “Voluntary Dehydration and Cognitive Performance in Trained College Athletes,” Perceptual and Motor Skills 109 (2009): 251–269.
  • [4] R. I. Dunbar, “The Social Brain Hypothesis and Its Implications for Social Evolution,” Annals of Human Biology 36, no. 5 (2009): 562–572; John J. Ratey, MD, A User’s Guide to the Brain: Perception, Attention, and the Four Theaters of the Brain (New York: Pantheon, 2001).
  • [5] M. T. Gailliot, “Unlocking the Energy Dynamics of Executive Functioning: Linking Executive Functioning to Brain Glycogen,” Perspectives on Psychological Science 3 (2008): 245.
  • [6] John J. Ratey, MD, A User’s Guide to the Brain: Perception, Attention, and the Four Theaters of the Brain (New York: Pantheon, 2001).
  • [7] M. T. Gailliot et al., “Self-Control Relies on Glucose as a Limited Energy Source: Willpower Is More than a Metaphor,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 92 (2007): 325–336.
  • [8] Daniel G. Amen, MD, Change Your Brain, Change Your Life: The Breakthrough Program for Conquering Anxiety, Depression, Obsessiveness, Lack of Focus, Anger, and Memory Problems. (New York: Harmony, 2015).
  • [9] M. T. Gailliot et al., “Self-Control Relies on Glucose as a Limited Energy Source: Willpower Is More than a Metaphor,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 92 (2007): 325–336.
  • [10] C. N. DeWall et al., “Violence Restrained: Effects of Self-Regulation and Its Depletion on Aggression,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 43 (2007): 62–76; A. L. Duckworth and M. E. P. Seligman, “Self-Discipline Outdoes IQ in Predicting Academic Performance of Adolescents,” Psychological Science 16 (2005): 939–944; E. J. Finkel and W. K. Campbell, “Self-Control and Accommodation in Close Relationships: An Interdependence Analysis,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 81 (2001): 263–277; M. T. Gailliot, B. J. Schmeichel, and R. F. Baumeister, “Self-Regulatory Processes Defend against the Threat of Death: Effects of Self-Control Depletion and Trait Self-Control on Thoughts and Fears of Dying,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 91 (2006): 49–62; Michael R. Gottfredson and Travis Hirschi, A General Theory of Crime (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1990); D. Kahan, J. Polivy, and C. P. Herman, “Conformity and Dietary Disinhibition: A Test of the Ego-Strength Model of Self-Regulation,” International Journal of Eating Disorders 32 (2003): 165–171; T. C. Pratt and F. T. Cullen, “The Empirical Status of Gottfredson and Hirschi’s General Theory of Crime: A Meta-Analysis,” Criminology 38 (2000): 931–964; Y. Shoda, W. Mischel, and P. K. Peake, “Predicting Adolescent Cognitive and Self-Regulatory Competencies from Preschool Delay of Gratification: Identifying Diagnostic Conditions,” Developmental Psychology 26 (1990): 978–986; J. P. Tangney, R. F. Baumeister, and A. L. Boone, “High Self-Control Predicts Good Adjustment, Less Pathology, Better Grades, and Interpersonal Success,” Journal of Personality 72 (2004): 271–322; K. D. Vohs and T. F. Heatherton, “Self-Regulatory Failure: A Resource-Depletion Approach,” Psychological Science 11 (2000): 249–254.
  • [11] Larry Husten, “Lancet: Researchers Find Goldilocks Effect in Glucose Control for Diabetes,” Cardio Brief (blog), January 26, 2010, http://cardiobrief.org/2010/01/26/lancet-researchers-find-goldilocks-effect-in-glucose-control-for-diabetes/.

 

Margaret W. Lavigne

As to God’s discipline, it’s comforting to know that “God promises to make something good out of the storm” (Roman 8: 28). Do not keep “record of wrongs” (In Hebrews 13:5; 1 Peter 4:8). God will do the justice in due course (Matthew 12:36 NIV). Negative emotions stop us from seeing God’s blessings behind a traumatic event. 看過太多經濟無憂的長者,卻很難真正快樂,我清楚明白資本主義過大放度金錢承諾人們的美好!老天爺想的和我們不同,所以別用這個世界或資本主義的思維去解讀老天爺的想法或做法。禍福相依,禮物或災難很多時候一時看不透,旁人也看不準。創傷之所以存在,往往不是事件本身,而是人們的負面解讀和負面標籤!掉牙與產子都是巨痛,但創傷比例偏低,是因為人們給予了事件正面的存在意義,並且相信所有人都能熬過去的意志!聖經有所謂的7 deadly sins,而傲慢是seven deadly sins 之首,因為傲慢帶來偏見,偏見引發暴力、歧視、霸凌與迫害,如種族主義等等。inner peace是老天爺(上帝)給人們的禮物。老天爺(上帝)時刻關注記錄我們的言行,聖經強調柔軟、正直、自律、謙卑、憐憫與耐心,同時聖經點出了怠惰、憤怒與追逐私利(self-seeking)之過錯。聖經提醒人們勿低估言語之惡,因為言語也能左右生死。不記他人之惡,因為老天爺(上帝)都記在本子裡了!理財時代,從照顧好自己的健康開始!做該做的事,而不是想做的事。想著別人的壞,為難了自己,想著別人的好,溫暖了自己!別執著或強求,不屬於你的,只會逗留不會久留。中醫主張悲觀是疾病之根源,而西醫證實正面情緒可降低身體發炎指數和血糖指數。不安、焦慮說的都是恐懼。勿低估甜食之惡,國外研究證實阿茲海默症患者禁糖可逆轉病情。學問、宗教和人際關係,最怕道聽塗說和一知半解。道理太多,柔軟與耐心就足夠!太多人大概都想不到,不自律就不太可能快樂....因為不自律,我們就很難肯定自己

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