「友誼代表雙方將彼此視為同類」

《The Impact of Inequality: How to Make Sick Societies Healthier》摘要

在這個問句底下,還隱藏著另一個未說出口、相當冒犯的問題:你有多少價值?….友誼代表雙方將彼此視為同類….雙方就都得裝作階級差異不存在或不重要…也不會談論那些凸顯階級差異的主題。在對話當中,雙方要避免提起生活狀況、所得、教育程度與地位差異,舉例來說,如果他們想聊超商食物漲價的現象,就只能假裝物價上漲對他們造成的影響是一樣的….

 

《The Impact of Inequality: How to Make Sick Societies Healthier》摘要

琳賽.漢利(Lynsey Hanley)在其著作《端莊得體:跨越階級鴻溝》(Respectable: Crossing the Class Divide)[5]中回憶到,她上大學之後有一次誤用近音詞,被人糾正後非常羞愧….舊時的朋友跟家人還會揶揄她說:「妳講話幹嘛咬文嚼字?」….還有吃飯時刀叉該怎麼握..

 

《The Impact of Inequality: How to Make Sick Societies Healthier》摘要

擔憂外在形象就是社交評價焦慮的來源…卻還是不想冒險受他人批評….談到階級與地位差異時,許多人都抱持著逃避的態度。有些人否認階級與地位差異具有極大影響力,有時更堅稱它們根本不存在….有些人相信只要我們能忽略物質條件的差距,學習以同等的尊重和尊嚴來對待彼此,就能輕鬆解決問題;但即使是最善解人意的人,也很難不把外顯地位當成內在個人價值指標,無法擺脫那已深植人心、與物質條件差距緊密連結的優越感與自卑感。

 

《The Impact of Inequality: How to Make Sick Societies Healthier》摘要

就算我們自覺能不受外在財富、階級象徵所干擾,以公正中立的角度來評價他人,我們對自己的外表、衣著、車子,和其他炫耀性商品的在乎與執著,仍然顯示我們不相信別人能以不帶偏見的立場來評價我們

 

我們之所以相信外貌或外在打扮具有非常大的影響力,原因其來有自。許多研究都顯示,社會階級與種族等因素會在有意識或無意識的情況下,強烈影響我們對他人的評價….而這種現象,或許就是讓人們進行炫耀性消費的另一個強大推力。

 

 

註釋
[5] Hanley, L., Respectable: Crossing the Class Divide. London: Allen Lane, 2016.
[6] Hanson, W., The Bluffer’s Guide to Etiquette. London: Bluffer’s, 2014.
[7] Crompton, R., ‘Consumption and class analysis’, The Sociological Review 1997; 44 (1 suppl): 113–32.; Deutsch, N. L. and Theodorou, E., ‘Aspiring, consuming, becoming: youth identity in a culture of consumption’, Youth & Society 2010; 42 (2): 229–54.
[8] Institute for Public Policy Research, ‘Modern women marrying men of the same or lower social class’, IPPR, 5 April 2012.
[9] Merrill, D. M., Mothersinlaw and Daughtersinlaw: Understanding the Relationship and What Makes Them Friends or Foe. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007.
[10] Neumann, J., Poor Kids, BBC1, 7 June 2011.
[11] Elgar, F. J., Craig, W., Boyce, W., Morgan, A. and Vella-Zarb, R., ‘Income inequality and school bullying: multilevel study of adolescents in 37 countries’, Journal of Adolescent Health 2009; 45 (4): 351–9.
[12] Tippett, N. and Wolke, D., Socioeconomic status and bullying: a meta-analysis’, American Journal of Public Health 2014; 104 (6): e48–e59.
[13] Odgers, C. L., Donley, S., Caspi, A., Bates, C. J. and Moffitt, T. E., ‘Living alongside more affluent neighbors predicts greater involvement in antisocial behavior among low-income boys’, Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry 2015; 56 (10): 1055–64.
[14] Case, A. and Deaton, A., ‘Rising morbidity and mortality in midlife among white non-Hispanic Americans in the 21st century’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 2015; 112 (49): 15078–83.
[15] Minton, J. W., Pickett, K. E., Shaw, R., Vanderbloemen, L., Green, M. and McCartney, G. M., ‘Two cheers for a small giant? Why we need better ways of seeing data: a commentary on: “Rising morbidity and mortality in midlife among white non-Hispanic Americans in the 21st century”’, International Journal of Epidemiology 2016; doi: 10.1093/ije/dyw095.
[16] Goldstein, R., Almenberg, J., Dreber, A., et al., ‘Do more expensive wines taste better? Evidence from a large sample of blind tastings’, Journal of Wine Economics 2008; 3 (1): 1–9.
[17] Atkinson, W., ‘The context and genesis of musical tastes: omnivorousness debunked, Bourdieu buttressed’, Poetics 2011; 39 (3): 169–86.
[18] Savage, M., Social Class in the 21st Century. London: Penguin, 2015.
[19] Hobsbawm, E., Fractured Times: Culture and Society in the Twentieth Century. London: Little, Brown, 2013.
[20] Toronyi-Lalic, I., ‘Sceptic’s Sistema’, Classical Music June 2012.
[21] Szlendak, T. and Karwacki, A., ‘Do the Swedes really aspire to sense and the Portuguese to status? Cultural activity and income gap in the member states of the European Union’, International Sociology 2012; 27 (6): 807–26.
[22] Brown, R., Prejudice: Its Social Psychology. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 2011.
[23] Prandy, K., ‘The revised Cambridge scale of occupations’, Sociology 1990; 24 (4): 629–55.
[24] Sayer, A., The Moral Significance of Class. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

 

※ 書籍資訊

The Impact of Inequality: How to Make Sick Societies Healthier

中文版書名:《收入不平等:為何他人過得越好,我們越焦慮?》,摘錄自篇名〈財富與階級的影響力〉

作者:理查.威金森(Richard Wilkinson),凱特.皮凱特(Kate Pickett)

出版社:時報出版 | 2019/7/23出版


#社會認同 # 勢利、虛榮# 

 

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