Pygmalion Effect: Low Expectations Lead to a Decrease in Performance

畢馬龍效應(Pygmalion Effect)由哈佛大學心理學教授羅伯·羅聖索爾(Robert Rosenthal)與傑柯布森(Jacobson)兩人於1968年研究提出。他們對學校裡一群6∼12歲的兒童做智商測驗,將他們分成實驗組和對照組,告訴老師們實驗組的孩子們智商比較高,老師因此設計較為艱難的課程給這些智商比較高的孩子,也花更多的時間回答孩子們的問題,教學更認真。

 

一年後這些孩子的智商分數都增加了。事實上兩組孩童智商高低並沒有太大不同,是隨機分組。由於老師和學生都期待自我的課堂表現,因此影響了教學態度與方法,學生經由這樣教學方法的刺激,智商也真的增加。

 

1988年史德林·李維史東(J.Sterling Livingston)在《哈佛商業評論》(Harvard Business Review)上發表了〈管理上的畢馬龍〉(Pygmalion in Management)。他主張管若管理者告訴部屬他們能勝任某些工作並可獲致成功,部屬通常能超越管理者的期待而且做得更好。

 

若管理者技巧不好,很可能會使部屬對自己的評價和觀感降低。若管理者能善用激勵的方法,部屬自信和潛能都會被激發,生產力隨之提高。

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Pygmalion Effect believes that low expectations lead to a decrease in performance. As Rosenthal and Babad (1985) note: “When we expect certain behaviors of others, we are likely to act in ways that make the expected behavior more likely to occur.” Robert Rosenthal and Lenore Jacobsen (1968) found that teacher expectations influence pupil performance. In a nutshell, the expectations teachers have of their students leads to changes in the student’s behaviour and attitude. 


畢馬龍效應((Pygmalion Effect)意指自我應驗預言,透過自我暗示來自證其真。畢馬龍效應套用在管理學用來指出:管理者對部屬的期待會影響部屬的表現。用在親子關係,就是父母對子女的期待會影響孩子的表現。Reference: Pygmalion Effect: How Expectation Shape Behaviour For Better or Worse

 

小編司馬儀的思考點:那麼,我們對另一半的期許是否也會影響對方的表現呢?如果宇宙的秘密是真,可是過去我的絕對樂觀,也發生過不樂觀的結果,又,不樂觀的期待,卻也發生過預想以外的樂觀的結果…..

 

Wise Library 1985

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