[解答] 銀髮族,哪些運動可以增加骨質密度?

負重型運動為什麼可以防止骨質流失

醫生表示健康的骨頭是維持動態平衡,當身體需求沒有那麼大的時候,骨頭裡的鈣就會慢慢轉化成我們血液裡的鈣離子。一旦增加身體負重的刺激時,讓身體骨骼受到刺激,骨鬆病人感受身體骨量不足以支撐運動強度,就會開始從血漿中,抽回鈣離子進入骨骼。

一項針對單手持拍的網球選手所作的研究,發現持拍側手臂的骨質密度明顯高於另外一側沒有持拍的手臂。

另一項研究顯示,不論是年紀高低,經過一年左右的重量訓練,骨骼中礦物質的含量都明顯增高,甚至七旬以上的長輩,經長時間的重量訓練後,骨質密度也能有效增加。骨質的增加在運動訓練初期最為明顯,若中止持續的運動計畫,骨質可能回復到運動訓練前的水準。

女性更年期到後,卵巢功能下降,身體的雌性荷爾蒙濃度減少,造骨功能下降,蝕骨細胞相對機能強化,流失的速度就會比較快。但運動可以訓練身體的協調性,減少跌倒或避免骨折。

身體的骨骼內有兩種細胞

1) 「蝕骨細胞」負責移除、吸收老舊或受傷的骨頭 

2) 「造骨細胞」則負責製造新骨。三十歲以前,造骨細胞的活性大於蝕骨細胞,三十歲後,骨頭的吸收速度慢慢大於生成速度。三十歲左右,骨質密度會達到一生的高峰,之後骨質每年便以1 %的速度流失,更年期早期的婦女每年流失的速度更可能達到 2 – 3 %。據世界衛生組織的定義,當骨質密度小於年輕女性達2.5 個標準差以上時,即「骨質疏鬆症」。

醫學證實運動可增加骨質密度

運動時,骨骼的受力增加,使骨細胞與其他有利於骨骼生長的因子活躍,便因而刺激骨骼生長。此外,運動會增加生長激素的分泌,加速全身血液循環,促進身體新陳代謝,幫助礦物質及營養的吸收,能有效提高骨質密度。

骨質疏鬆症,往往是遺傳、荷爾蒙、年齡、活動力及營養等因素交互影響的結果。累積骨骼中的鈣質,增加「骨本」的很重要的一項就是「正確的運動」。

負重運動效果最好:健行就有用!

負重運動,即運動時骨骼必須承受身體或其他額外的重量,例如慢跑、健行(所有人都可以參與的運動)及大部分的球類運動。注意:游泳不屬於「負重運動」。運動的時間與次數,每次 20 – 40 分鐘、每週 3 – 5 次是最好的選擇。

注意:過度運動或訓練有可能對骨骼產生負面的影響。女性運動員,有因為過度訓練而導致停經現象,或女性荷爾蒙的分泌減少,這種現象可能使骨質的流失增加。但壓力賀爾蒙也是造成骨質流失的原因之一。

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Exercises To Avoid For Osteoporosis 骨質疏鬆英文: osteoporosis

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