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肺炎 (pneumonia) &肺結核 症狀& 治療 Q and A

肺 炎 通 常 由 微 生 物 引 起, 分為1醫 院 感 染 的 肺 炎 (hospital-acquired pneumonia) 2 社 區 感 染 的 肺 炎 (community-acquired pneumonia)

醫療問題: 濫用抗
肺炎症狀: 發高熱,呼吸急促 + 長期性乾咳+ 深呼吸和咳嗽時胸痛 + 痰可能含有血絲

肺結核症狀: 咳嗽、吐痰、無故疲倦、胃口不佳、不思飲食、體重減輕,嚴重的時候可能還會有午後潮熱,夜間盜汗,甚至於胸痛、血喀血等現象。
肺炎治療時間: 細菌性肺炎通常七至十天可治癒。

肺炎併發病: 病菌到了肺氣泡時,很有可能突然惡化成血中毒以至休克(Septicaemia)。可能復發,也可能引致支氣管擴張症。 

Q: 為什麼會肺炎?
身體抵抗力弱時引起上呼吸道感染時、沒有正確及時處理,也可能是濫用止咳藥止咳引起

Q: 如何處理肺炎?臥床休息,大量飲水。 看醫生,依時服藥。 療程後結束後接受X射線檢查是否已完全痊愈。 

如果痰累積太多,可以考慮物理治療。

Q; 肺炎的種類? 會不會傳染? 

分為傳染性和非傳染性。傳染性是指痰內帶有結核菌,非傳染性指痰內不帶結核菌傳染性肺結核病患在吐痰、咳嗽或打噴嚏時,有機會讓痰變成細小的飛沫漂浮在空氣中,飛沫被痰包圍的中心是結核菌,飛沫直徑小到 5μm以下時便可能直接進入人的肺泡,直接與肺泡巨噬細胞接觸。 

Q、肺結核病人是不是都會傳染?

        肺結核病人可分為開放性和非開放性。開放性病人予有效治療後,可變成非開放性病人

Q 肺結核是怎樣傳染的?空氣傳染

傳染性病人打噴嚏、咳嗽或者高聲談話說笑及傳染性病人使用的衣物及棉被等 

Q 、肺結核不會遺傳?不會遺傳

Q 檢查肺結核的方法?  每年定期胸部X光檢查或驗痰

Q: 肺結核治療?遵照醫護人員的指示服藥

肺結核病的治療通常需要半年以上的時間,但此疾病容易復發。因此必須按時作痰和X光的複查

 

  labels: 細 菌 (bacteria) 、 病 毒 (virus) 、 真 菌 (fungus) 、肺炎雙球菌、葡萄球菌 、鏈球菌 、鸚鵡熱、肺績水、(Sputum retention)呼吸道纖毛防衛機制(mucociliary system)integral protein, transmembrane protein, .尿囊素(allantoin)、膽鹼(choline)

 

 

 

 

 

Margaret W. Lavigne 司馬儀

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