英美文學考古題-名詞解釋+論說題 – 應考要領經驗談
名詞解釋得分關鍵：看到熟悉題型務必準確及迅速決定落筆，自己整理的筆記針對每個名詞解釋，務必列出３句上下關鍵句（無須貪多），至於論說題，第一句下筆topic sentence 直接破題，接著， back up your argument with examples（以後論文寫作也是如此，每一個論點都務必提出佐證）。若是看到不熟悉的題材，第一步是簡單列出大綱，條列式邏輯分析，幫助思考及寫題。最後考古題的部分，每間學校都有他的主流派，某些學校著重經典的作品，某些學校喜歡較新的題材，如果是人人都耳熟能詳的經典的作品，你反而要了解夠深入才能拿高分！最後，答題速度也是關鍵之一，許多作品你考前就要摸熟，考場沒有讓你慢慢思考琢磨的時間空間
lCompare and contrast ~ “The miller’s Tale “and” The Wife of Bath’s Tale” (Chaucer)
Plz pinpoint the shared ideology and social and cultural significance.
趨勢：vernacular and overall society, individualism and individual expression
題材：commercial marriage and social injustice
辯論：ㄧ方站在男性的角度談性和忠貞的議題，Wife of Bath 則站在自身的立場為自己做有利的辯駁。
lcompare and contrast ~”Beowulf” and “Sir Gawain and Green Knight”
Tag: kin , vassal , lords
題材: warrior culture and idealized society
筆法: 使用monologue的作者: Browning, Yeats, Eliot
inner monologue or dramatic monologue?
courtly love: The ideal of courtly love sustains literary imagination of love relationship for aristocracy ( Medieval ~ Renaissance)
lArthurian romance is a cruel element of British literary legacy. Discuss how English writers of different ages develop moral/political themes that are related either to each writer’s vision or to each age’s concern
lRenaissance humanism renders its confidence in perfectibility of humanity, it’s lustful quest for secular achievements, its human-centered conception and great potentiality of the individual of the harmonious universe, which prevail the cultural landscape of the 16th and 17th-century England, as the dominating cultural idea. Discuss how literary works respond to the tenet.
Tag: Homas More’s Utopia, Christopher Marlowe’s Doctor Faustus, Sir Philip Sydney’s Defense of Poesy, Edmund Spenser’s Faerie Queene…John Milton.
Discuss how Geoffrey Chaucer, William Langland, Edmund Spenser address the theme.
Time: late medieval ~Renaissance age.
題材: the corruption of the Catholic Church
It is introduced from Italy in the Elizabethan age, its Petrarchan conventions are immediately challenged and adapted for different English sonneteers’ poetic vision. Discuss how Edmund Spenser, William Shakespeare, John Donne, John Milton contributed to the development of the English sonnet.
This is true when he is fated to commit it. As a morally free being, he identifies himself with his crime that he rejects and embraces them in free will. Paradoxically, the conspicuous tragic hero is never free not to do his deed; he cannot escape it.” Cite examples of tragic heroes.
It may be assumed that despite marked generic differences, Medieval Romances, Breton lays, and even fabliaux are evolved or rather transformed, from epics in terms of subject matter and arrangement of plot. Try to trace the development and characteristics of each of the variants in relation to Medieval English Literature.
Human nature and Shakespeare
1) How the tendency of human nature is envisioned in Shakespeare’s tragedy plays?
2) Whether fate or personality traits have determined the ending in Shakespeare’s tragedies? Identify and explain the conflicting forces and support your argument with examples .
Discuss how these writers, such as Geoffrey Chaucer, Edmund Spenser, John Milton work on national visions of Englishness and literary visions of poetic art?
When John Milton composed his Paradise Lost, epic had developed into a set of conventions or rules. How does Paradise Lost conform to or diverge from these conventions and how does he play on the convention to highlight the theme of his epic?
Plots of bloody violence, resounding rhetorical speeches on stage and ghosts thirsty for revenge contribute a lot to the English drama of the 16th and early 17th centuries. Illustrate these elements with concrete instances.
Describe how struggles unfolded in the tension between the high art, aristocracy and the popular taste, bourgeoisie by drawing on a few literary works to exemplify related issues.
domestic concerns is the primary target in the 18th century. how novelists like Daniel Defoe, Samuel Richardson, Henry Fielding, Horace Walpole, Jane Austenhandle convey the issue?
Reminder: Domestic concerns include confrontation with parental authority, suffering in love relationship, anxiety over inheritance, domestic violence, etc.
The restoration age and 18th century is unquestionably the great age of Satire. Discuss which institutions and what conditions of them these satirists found faults with. Describe the ideal conception of society may have agreed on in terms of the institutions criticized. John Dryden, Jonathan Swift, Alexander Pope, shared a more or less consistent vision of the ideal society.
Satire is utilized to attack the corruption of various contemporary institutions.
Tag: vantage point of satire
reason and nature Enlightenment concepts of reason and nature inform the intellectual and moral visions of many 18th-century English literary writers. Discuss how writers approached the idea and how they express their understanding of the world, at least 3 major writers.
1 Try to define and differentiate romanticism, realism and naturalism by citing appropriate examples.
Romanticism stresses the cult of sensibility, which involves promotion of spontaneous feeling and sincerity in order to get in touch with primitive and authentic feelings rather than rationality and convention. For instance, Wordsworth defines poetry as” the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings” in his “preface to Lyrical Ball ads.”
One critic asserts that “romanticism is not a break with tradition so much as recuperation and sustaining of the tradition of bourgeois poetry.” In this respect, English Romanticism claims an inheritance.
Romantic poets tend to transcend the limitations of the life by escaping to a different world or seek to attain the ideal of immortality through the appreciation of art or turn cynical about the transitory nature of life and the meaninglessness of human.
1 Discuss how the romantic writers respectively approach the concept of imagination in rendering this relationship and how a new conception of the relationship justifies some of them to evoke the supernatural or the visionary in their writings.
2 Discuss how Coleridge, Byron, Shelly, Keats develop their social critique/ moral visions by making use of figures like demon, ghost, monster, etc
Supernatural elements is an integral part of the dark side of romanticism. Solitude is an important theme in the works of major Romantic poets.
Discuss how some of these poets represent this state of mind as an essential factor of character formation and literary creativity.
Describe the salient features of the heroic figure and discuss how he is different form the conventional hero.
Trace the process of how different generations of female novelists, from 18th to the early 20th century have helped the readers define women as social and sexual beings in diverse ways.
Many intellectuals of the Victorian age reported their suffering from a sort of spiritual crisis, usually in the form of loss of faith, and possibly, its recovery. Those like Thomas Carlyle, John Sztuart Mill, Lord Alfred Tennyson, and Matthew Arnold, documented mental sufferings in their writing.
1) Discuss 2 different Victorian writers handle of it, the motivation for, the result of secrecy, the means by which truth is discovered, the authors’ manipulation of truth.
2) Discuss what and how rapid changes in the material, intellectual, or religious conditions of the 19th century contributed to the crises and describe how and ever these writers regained their mental equilibrium
Discuss how Victorian writers address related issues, including woman’s education, female vocational career, domestic ideology.
Discuss how urban experiences, life in the city are represented/endowed with symbolic meanings in the works of some Modernist writers, such as T.S Eliot and James Joyce. Try to cite at least 2 examples to elaborate how British modernist utilizes fragmentation and circularity to the idea of fictionalization and self-consciousness.
Reminder: secrecy includes deception, concealment, privacy, mystery, mistaken identity, etc.
Describe the conventions of the poetic mode and discuss how John Milton’s Lycidas, P.B. Shelly’s Adonais, Lord Alfred Tennyson’s In Memoriam A.H. H, and Matthew Arnold’s Thyrsis conform to or diverge from the poetic conventions.
The 19 th century is characterized as an alternative, anti-Victorian trend, which conveys decadence, ennui, and cynicism, and sensualism. Discuss how writers as Algernon Swinburne, Edward Fitzgerald, Oscar Wilde, Robert L. Stevenson, Bram Stoker demonstrate these stylistic features, at least 2 writers.
Around the turn of the 20th century, the British Empire began to show the signs of incapable management or even imminent collapse. There are tremendous changes in terms of thematic choice and narrative style, some novelists demonstrate the bifurcated tendency, a transitional position, harking back to the 19th century realist conventions as well as anticipating modernist innovations at the same time. Discuss how the novels of Joseph Conrad, E. M Foster, Rudyard Kipling respond to these signs.
literature’s social significance ~ literature serves for many as a means of social activism despite Oscar Wilde’s assertion that “ all art is quite useless,” Discuss the social significance, from 18th to the 20th century with at least 3 literary works.
1) the important quality of this character
2) the importance of the character to a given theme
3) his/her effect on other characters, or on the plot
4) How his/her speeches/behaviors reveal this?
From Mr. Bennet in Pride and Prejudice, Bertha Mason in Jane Eyre; Maggie Tulliver in The Mill on the Floss; Thomas Gradgrind in Hard Times; Angel Clare in Tess of the D’Urbervills; Lord Henry Wotton in The Picture of Dorian Gray
Feste, one of Shakespeare’s intriguing characters, declare that” some are born great, some achieve greatness, some have greatness thrust upon them” ( Twelfth Night) What is the significance of such utterance in term of the reigning ideology, socio -politics, and the theatrical representation in Shakespeare’s time?