英美文學: sonnet 詳解-統整比較Petrarch/Shakespeare Sonnet/Spenserian sonnet

Sonnet 始祖-Petrarch 


Definition: The term “sonnet” derives from the Occitan word “ sonnet” and Italian word “sonnetto,” both literally meaninglittle song.” Sonnet is one of the poetic forms which consists of 14 lines. Sonnets is required to write in iambic pentameter[1] and every other syllable is naturally accented.


First Stanza

Octave (8 lines) =>ask a Question

2 variable form  :




Second Stanza

Sestet(6 lines) =>offer the answer

2 variable form:





Petrarch establishes the most widely used sonnet form. Petrarch sonnet divides into 8-line octave that states a proposition or problem, followed by a 6-line sestet that resolves to solve the problem, with a clear break between the two sections. Characteristically, the 9th marks a turn, as a transition or move from proposition to the resolution by signaling a change in tone, mood or stance of the poem.



Shakespeare Sonnet


ABAB CDCB EFEF GG(rhyming couplet)


Form: Shakespeare invented the pattern with 3 quatrains[2], each presents an idea or a theme and ends with a rhymed couplet that either offers a summary or an unexpected sharp thematic turn.


Theme: He probes themes into a wider range, including religion, politics, affection, eternality and other issues.




l   He addresses the issue of eternity of poetry in sonnet 18.

l   Quotations: “every fair from fair declines, by chance or nature’s changing course untrimmed/when in eternal lines to time you growst/ and this gives life to you”

l   He renders the subject of friendship in sonnet 173.

l   Quotations: “This you perceivst, which will make your love more strong to love that well which you must leave ere long.”


Mood: His moods are not confined to a despairing Petrarchan lover. Rather, Shakespeare’s sonnet contains diverse emotions, ranging from delight, melancholy, pride, and shame, disgust to fear.

Attention: He portrays a dark, sensuous, and seriously promiscuous mistress. In a sense, the dark lady is described as alluring but degrading subject of desire, such as sonnet 147, while the love poem to a woman are explicitly rife of negative and bitter criticism. As in sonnet 130, the vision of the dark lady appears to be plain, homely and even ugly. For instance, “ my mistress’ eye are nothing like the sun/if snow be white, why her breasts are dun/if hair be wires, black wires grow on her head, accordingly”




Self-referential: Shakespeare sonnet involves modern-style, self-referential[3] atmosphere that each poem deals with highly personal theme and


his sequence suggest a story with vague details. In a sense, each can be taken on it or in relations to other poems.



Spenserian sonnet (繼古承新)


Rhyme scheme: abab baba cdcd ee

He models on Petrarch in a more general level by introducing the striking features of Italian love poetry to England.

chief characteristics:

1.      overwhelming joy as well as tormenting desire

2.      conflict between love and reason, love and desire

3.      discussion of poetic creativity.


Form: It is a fusion of Petrarch and Shakespeare based on 3 quatrains and a couplet system set by Shakespeare. Nevertheless, it is more like the Petrarchan tradition due to the fact that the conclusion follows from the argument or issue set up in the earlier quatrains.


poet ability and creativity:


He describes the lady in an objectified approach through bodily parts with intention to transform the traditional, “transcendental ideal” into unremarkable, common woman. He adopts a great use of parody of idealization that the mistress’s status is somewhat degraded by being compared to other common materials. 



In Faerie Queen, Duessa is not idealized but instead all of her flaws are heightened.





[1] pentameter n.【音韻學】五音步詩行。

[2] quatrain n. 【音韻學】四行詩,四行一節的詩。

[3] self-referentiaadj.1.【邏輯學】(命題或陳述)自參照的;真假自明的。2. 與自己有關的。


外語專科 出版社

外語專科出版社,是一個新銳出版社,未來會將出版內容以「網站」發表為主。self-introduction對小編來說是最難的。害怕無聊,但喜歡獨處。一旦喜歡任何事物,就會非常專注。還有,喜歡創作的人們,快加入字媒體吧。 小編個人的療癒系小說處女作《推理愛》由重量級名人「睛視媳婦黃宥嘉醫生」公開掛名推薦及寫序。《推理愛》不在多數實體書店上架,可在出版社官網直接訂購。小編今年的小名是:「一點點小姐」,就是字面上的意思。也想取名「小金魚」,因為短性記憶的緣故啊。小編是新手撰稿人簡碧儀,文章以本名或筆名陸續刊登於各平台,包括「自由時報」「東森新聞官網」「TVBS官網」「蘋果日報官網」「姊妹淘」。2017在TVBS有一專欄,專欄名稱是「黑豆玄米小姐」。小編陸續使用過諸多筆名,如野澤碧、強心臟戰鬥力女孩等等。用字風格微辣,TVBS專欄有人氣點閱榜第一名的紀錄,撰稿文亦榮登TVBS專欄話題熱播榜及編輯推薦的排行榜。只是一個很愛發表「異」見的新人撰稿人。小時候是離不開收音機的小孩,標準的乖乖牌,長大以後,卻裝了一口袋的各式夢想,幾乎對各行各業都有無知的好感。有一天問自己:小學開始努力,努力這麼久,要努力多久才可以退休?好想從事有趣的工作。充滿好奇心,但不愛偵探片。愛讀報愛剪貼,就愛戴上偵探的瞳孔探追根究。是俗仔,怕黑怕高又排斥恐怖片。購物,是批發控,高度執著CP值。這些年才迷上攝影,但只懂皮毛。這一兩年才慢慢關注時事議題,2017年熱愛花圃種植,喜歡日韓劇也追歐美影集。最近迷上動漫【リライフ】 。個人部落格轉網站前已累積逾六百萬的瀏覽量,單篇熱門文章兩年多的時間累積近一百六十萬的點閱率。2018年的心願之一是撥空寫完英文小說。特約外稿、採訪撰稿等合作請來信 jpsiawase@gmail.com



你的電子郵件位址並不會被公開。 必要欄位標記為 *